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Health

Hard disks failures typically stem from either platter surface defects (bad blocks) or mechanical failures.

lsblk
sudo umount /dev/sda1
sudo e2fsck -c /dev/sda1 # check for bad blocks
sudo mount /dev/sda1

# If your disk supports SMART
sudo smartctl -a /dev/sda1 | grep 'SMART support'
sudo smartctl -H /dev/sda1

I/O Speed

fio is a CLI tool for measuring disk read and write speeds

cd /tmp
fio --name=${HOSTNAME} --filename=test.fio --randrepeat=1 --ioengine=libaio --direct=1 \
--gtod_reduce=1 --bs=4k --iodepth=64 --size=4G --readwrite=randrw --rwmixread=75
rm test.fio