notes blog about



Create a pool (add a disk):

zpool create mypool sdb

See what have we created:

zpool list
zpool status


Create a filesystem

zfs create mypool/myfs
zfs list -r mypool    # -r -- recurse through child filesystems

Change default mount point (a property) of the root filesystem

zfs set mountpoint=/opt/mypool mypool
zfs get all mypool/myfs    # filesystem properties


touch /opt/mypool/myfs/file
zfs snapshot mypool/myfs@friday
rm /opt/mypool/myfs/file
ls /opt/mypool/myfs/.zfs/snapshot/friday
zfs rollback mypool/myfs@friday  # can only revert FS to its most recent snapshot
zfs clone mypool/myfs@friday mypool/myfs_clone


Adding (five) disks:

zpool destroy mypool
zpool create mybigpool raidz1 sdb sdc sdd    # raidz<parity>
zpool add -f mybigpool mirror sde sdf
zpool status mybigpool

See ULSAH for more.

Encrypted backups with snapshots (on external HDD)

Setup external disk (once)

dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdc bs=1M count=10
zpool create extusb /dev/sdc
zfs create extusb/backup
encfs /extusb/backup/.encrypted /extusb/backup/decrypted

Mount the disk

#sudo zpool import [-f] extusb # not needed
sudo /etc/init.d/zfs-fuse restart
sudo zpool list # you should see the 'extusb' pool
sudo encfs /extusb/backup/.encrypted /extusb/backup/decrypted
sudo ls -l /extusb/backup/decrypted/

Backup data


# Remote host

# Local user ssh key

# Make sure decrypted backups are mounted.
mount | grep /extusb/backup/decrypted > /dev/null
if [[ $EV -ne 0 ]]; then
        echo "Backups not running, because encrypted FS is not mounted. Run:"
        echo "    encfs /extusb/backup/.encrypted /extusb/backup/decrypted"
        exit 1

# Rsync data.
rsync --quiet --delete -az \
        --exclude 'public' \
		--rsync-path="sudo rsync" \
		--rsh "ssh -i $SSHKEY -p $RPORT -l $RUSER" \
        $RHOST:/data \

# Create snapshot with a timestamp.
zfs snapshot extusb/backup@`date +%F_%T`
sudo ./

Check backups

sudo zfs list -t snapshot

Unmount the disk

sudo fusermount -u /extusb/backup/decrypted  # encfs
sudo umount /extusb/backup                   # zfs
sudo umount /extusb                          # zfs root
sudo /etc/init.d/zfs-fuse stop

Restore data (once)

zfs clone extusb/backup@2015-03-13 extusb/2015-03-13
encfs /extusb/2015-03-13/.encrypted /extusb/2015-03-13/decrypted/
#### take the files you need from /extusb/2015-03-13/decrypted/
fusermount -u /extusb/2015-03-13/decrypted
zfs destroy extusb/2015-03-13

Cleanup (once)

# list snapshots
zfs list -t snapshot

# remove 2017 backups
zfs list -t snapshot -o name | grep backup@2017 | tac                                # check
zfs list -t snapshot -o name | grep backup@2017 | tac | xargs -n 1 zfs destroy -r    # remove