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When a Unix program finishes, it leaves an exit code (stored in $? special shell variable) for its parent process. The exit code is a small integer and it’s also called error code or exit value.

Zero always means success, non zero exit status usually means error.

Exit code can be used in conditionals like this:

$ ls / > /dev/null && echo ok || echo error
ok

$ ls-bad / > /dev/null 2&>1 && echo ok || echo error
error

$ grep root /etc/passwd > /dev/null && echo ok || echo error
ok

$ if grep -q bla /etc/passwd; then echo ok; else echo error; fi
error

The shell runs the command after the if keyword. If the command exits with 0, the then clause commands are executed, else else clause commands are run.

Note that some programs (like grep and diff) use non zero exit codes to indicate normal conditions:

## grep returns 0 if it finds a match and 1 if it doesn't
$ grep blabla /etc/passwd > /dev/null && echo ok || echo 'error (not really)'
error (not really)

Search for “exit” or “diagnostics” in man pages if not sure.

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